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Ce (nu) înseamnă toleranța

Ce este toleranţa? Ce nu este toleranța?

Etimologic, toleranţa vine de la verbul „tolerare” din latină, care se poate traduce prin:

  1. (în sens propriu) a susţine, a menţine, a suporta o greutate
  2. (în sens figurativ) a suferi, a suporta o durere sau o persoană
  3. a continua, a răbda.

Sensul iniţial al toleranţei este de a suporta ceva dificil de acceptat, de care nu poţi scăpa sau pe care nu îl poţi evita sau schimba, care este definit sau se impune prin forţa legii, eticii, obiceiurilor culturale etc.

Înainte de apariția noțiunii de toleranță, se vorbea despre „bunul simţ” ca fiind cel ce făcea de multe ori regulile, atunci când părerile erau contradictorii. În ce constă bunul-simț?… Într-un lucru foarte simplu, anume că poți să ceri dovada tuturor lucrurilor și tuturor afirmațiilor, având totodată respect față de diveritatea de idei, opinii, credinţe, politici, stiluri de viaţă etc… chiar dacă acestea sunt în mod vehement contrare credințelor proprii. Așadar, toleranța nu înseamna a renunța la propriile noastre valori sau credințe, ci înseamna a accepta faptul că există diversitate,  O definiție asemănătoare a toleranței este dată de către John F. Kennedy care spune Toleranța nu implică niciun angajament față de convingerile altora. Mai degrabă condamnă opresiunea sau persecutarea altora. Deci, recapitulăm: toleranță egal acceptare. Dar fiindcă ideea de bun-simț este străina multora, voi încerca să explic toleranța într-o manieră diferită, mai accesibilă timpurilor moderne.

Toleranța nu este un atribut moral, este mai degrabă un tratat de pace(un accord), sau o normă socială. Aceasta ne permite astfel să trăim în pace cu ceilalţi, la nivel social sau individual, mai ales cu cei care nu ne seamănă. Fiind un tratat, acesta are propriile lui reguli(drepturi și obligații). Noi însă de multe ori uităm (sau ignorăm) faptul că nici un drept nu este absolut. Drepturile unei singure persoane pot intra in conflict cu drepturile, altei personae. Conform unei vechi zicale , a carei autor este filozoful John Stuart Mill, putem spune că “Libertatea ta se termina acolo unde incepe libertatea altuia”.  Libertatea înseamnă că oamenii au dreptul de a avea propriile lor convingeri. Tu având același drept, nu ai nici o obligație să tolerezi o încercare de impunere a convingerilor altora.

De exemplu… eu te accept pe tine ca fiind ateu sau vegan(sunt doar niște exemple), dar resping ideologic ateismul sau veganismul. Este dreptul meu de a avea propriile convingeri, dar în același timp am obligația de a te respecta.

Toleranţa ne permite astfel să trăim în pace cu ceilalţi, la nivel social sau individual, mai ales cu cei care nu ne seamănă. Lipsa de toleranţă duce la războaiele dintre religii, dintre culturi, dintre rase. Fără toleranţă nu ne putem gîndi la drepturile omului, la pluralism, la democraţie, la respectarea voluntară a legilor. Lipsa de toleranţă duce la o societate controlată de dogmatism, absolutism, legea junglei, conformism şi constrîngere.

Așadar, să încercăm, măcar, să fim mai rezonabili cu cei din jur… ăsta fiind primul pas spre a reuși. 🙂

 

 

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